WHAT IS INFERTILITY?
Infertility is the inability to achieve pregnancy despite 1 year of unprotected intercourse, which affects one out of every 6 couples. However, in women over 35 years of age, basic examinations should be done without waiting for this period and waiting should be allowed according to the condition of the patients.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF INFERTILITY?
Causes of infertility can be female (65%) or male (35%). Although advanced female age and decreased ovarian reserve are the most distressing situations, the absence of sperm in the semen we call azoospermia is among the difficult cases. However, these patients can achieve pregnancy by in vitro fertilization method. Tubes and peritoneal factors constitute an important part of female causes. Despite all investigations, no cause can be found in 10-15% of cases, and these patients constitute the group of unexplained infertility.
WHAT IS DONE IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF INFERTILITY?
First of all, getting very detailed information from the spouses actually constitutes the cornerstone of the treatment. The age of the spouses, their occupations, the time they want a child, previous illnesses and surgeries can provide important clues in making the diagnosis and planning the treatment. Likewise, whether there is an infertility problem in their family history, consanguinity status and a hereditary disease history can provide information to support the diagnosis. Learning the menstrual order of women in detail can give us simple but very important information. It is also very important to question the sexual life of the couple.
First of all, a good gynecological examination and ultrasonography, blood tests for the spouses, medicated uterus film and detailed sperm analysis provide the basic evaluation of the infertile couple. A good urological examination of our male patients should not be neglected.
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT METHODS IN INFERTILITY?
Treatment of infertility should of course be specific to couples. Although the complaints of our patients who applied to our clinic with the desire to have a child are the same, each of them is planned for their own treatment. Treatment steps can range from waiting therapy to in vitro fertilization. In patients who have problems in their tubes, sometimes they can have a child by surgery, sometimes vaccination (especially some patient groups with a single tube problem) or in vitro fertilization treatment may be required.
Waiting therapy is a method that should be used for every eligible patient. Many patients can actually be persuaded not to be in a rush if they are adequately informed. Thus, the stress and unnecessary costs of treatments on couples are avoided.
When and How Does Ovulation Tracking Happen?
Young and women with ovulation problems can be treated with simple ovulation drugs. These drugs are usually started during the menstrual period. Drugs used as injections or pills should be given by ultrasonography if possible. When the egg growth is followed by ultrasonography and reaches a sufficient size, a cracking needle is given and sexual intercourses are arranged. This type of treatment can vary between 3 and 6 months, depending on the response of the patients. If pregnancy cannot be achieved, then vaccination or IVF treatment can be started. However, if necessary, earlier assisted reproductive techniques should be used without prolonging the treatment steps, especially in patients over 35 years old.
What is Vaccination Treatment?
The aim of vaccination treatment is to increase the chance of success by obtaining more than one (2-3) egg. Another application that increases the chance of success in this method is that the sperms are purified from unnecessary cells and left to the female uterine cavity by selecting the more mobile ones. Thus, the destruction of sperm in both the woman’s vagina and the cervix is prevented, and more healthy sperm reach an area closer to the egg.
Before vaccination, injection or drug therapy is usually given to ensure egg proliferation and growth for about 10-12 days. When the sufficient size and number is reached, the grafting time is planned with the help of cracking needles. Although ultrasonography is sufficient during follow-up, sometimes hormone analyzes may be required.
Vaccination is a painless procedure that does not require anesthesia. Although the majority of patients do not have pain, they may rarely have pain, especially in patients who have serious difficulties in gynecological examinations. Since such cases can be detected earlier, the procedure can be planned with a mild anesthesia for the patients.
After vaccination, there is no need to stay in the hospital. In general, the patient can be sent home easily after resting for half an hour.